Roger II de Hauteville was the son of the Great Count Roger, was born in Mileto in December 22, 1095.
With him Sicily became a kingdom.
With him was born the Sicilian Parliament, among the oldest in the world.
He was also named King of Africa for the conquests in the territory of Africa.
He lived his childhood in Palermo and knew Greek, Latin and Arabic.
It immediately proved to be a wise and capable governor, with expansionist aims.
He was Duke of Calabria and Puglia, Count of Sicily with dominion over Amalfi and Gaeta, on part of Naples, on Taranto, Capua and Abruzzi.
To tie together all these states, taking advantage of the schism of the church, supported pope Anacletus II who in turn recognized him King of Sicily with the Bull of September 27, 1130.
The coronation took place in Palermo December 25, 1130.
Ruggero had to fight against the factions favorable to Pope Innocent II, in particular against Bernard of Clairvaux, Louis VI of France, Henry I of England and the emperor Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire, all with interests contrary to the birth of the Kingdom of Sicily.
The Council of Melfi decided to depose Pope Anacletus II.
Innocent II then delegitimized Ruggero who instead managed to subjugate all the rebels.
Innocent II invaded the Kingdom, but was defeated, so he was forced to definitively invest Roger King of Sicily, the Duchy of Puglia and the principality of Capua.
Ruggero became one of the most powerful rulers of Europe, and made Sicily the dominant power of the Mediterranean.
In 1140 he promulgated the establishment of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Assizes of Ariano.
He also extended his reign to Corfu and, in North Africa, to Libya, Tunisia and Algeria.
In his court in Palermo he attracted the best men of all ethnic groups and maintained complete tolerance for all faiths, races and languages.
He died in Palermo on February 26, 1154; his remains are in a sarcophagus in the Cathedral of Palermo, together with the other royal sarcophagi including those of his daughter Constance of Altavilla and his nephew Federico II Hohenstaufen.
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